XPS analysis of the carbon rod anodes and cathodes has been performed to determine the impact of DESs of Types I and IV on the exfoliation process. Fig. 6 shows the XPS data for the graphite rod after it has been intercalated only by the IL (anode) or by the DES (cathode). The powdered residue collected after exfoliation was also subjected to XPS analysis. The results clearly show that zinc cations intercalate into the cathode while a small amount of fluoride anions intercalate into the anode, particularly when IL is used. The intercalation of these HA14-1 into the carbon electrodes are directly responsible for the enhanced graphene yield obtained when using DESs of Types 1 and IV. While these ions are absent from the IL, both DESs contain them, although to a lesser degree in the case of Type I DESs as discussed in the following paragraph.
Fig. 6. XPS images of exfoliated graphene products and electrodes after exfoliation in either Type I or Type IV DES with or without IL. Acetonitrile is radially symmetrical the solvent in all cases. (a) Graphite rod; (b) positive graphite electrode after exfoliation of graphene with IL and Type IV DES; (c) positive graphite electrode after exfoliation of graphene with Type I and Type IV DES (without IL); (d) negative graphite electrode after exfoliation of graphene with IL and Type I or Type IV DES; (e) negative graphite electrode after exfoliation of graphene using Type I or Type IV DES (without IL); (f) graphene powder after exfoliation in IL and Type I or Type IV DES.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
Fig. 8. ESLD (main plot) and LESL weight distribution (inset) applying different feeding policies.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
According to Fig. 8, there is a big shift on the ESL position of the most probable weight fraction toward higher values. Noticeably, each curve has their peak around the number of ABT378 repeating units corresponding to the predetermined defined copolymer. The distribution fashions of LES, corresponding to targeted ethylene/1-hexene copolymers are illustrated in the inset plot. As discussed in the previous section, the plots follow a symmetric Gaussian-like distribution similar to the behavior of ESL distribution. The LES distribution is sympathetic system a behavioral signature of long copolymer chains fractionated from a dilute solution during non-isothermal crystallization.
Fig. 9. Differential CRYSTAF profiles corresponding to three cases of feeding strategy.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
The UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra of as-prepared MoS2/TiO2 composites were investigated and shown in Fig. 7(a). The pure TiO2 sample shows Staurosporine from the UV through the visible range up to 380 nm. After introducing of MoS2, the UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra of MoS2/TiO2 samples show characteristic absorption corresponding to that of TiO2 and enhanced absorption in the visible light region as compared to pure TiO2 sample, which can be ascribed to the absorption of MoS2. The absorption intensity in the visible light region of the MoS2/TiO2 samples strengthened with the increasing MoS2 contents, which agrees with the color of the as-prepared samples that varies from white to gray. In Fig. 7(b), ZnTCPP-MoS2/TiO2 composite shows the characteristic absorption of ZnTCPP peaks at 415, 560 and 600 nm, which is similar to that of the corresponding solution spectra. The result indicates that the ZnTCPP complex was anchored successfully on the surface of TiO2, and the ZnTCPP-MoS2/TiO2 composite has an enhanced ability to harvest visible light as compared to the MoS2/TiO2 sample. To investigate electron transfer efficiency from the excited dye molecules to TiO2 conduction band, the photocurrent response of the ZnTCPP sensitized TiO2 electrode was tested in a nitrogen-saturated 0.5 M Na2SO4 aqueous solution under visible light illumination (λ > 420 nm). As shown in Fig. 8(a), visible light illumination (λ > 420 nm) of ZnTCPP-TiO2 electrode can generate a saturation photocurrent with a value of 1.35 μA cm−2, which suggests that an efficient photoinduced electron transfer process is occurring between ZnTCPP and TiO2.
Dithiocarbamates, which are a versatile class of mono–anionic 1,1-dithio ligands, can coordinate with transaction metals strongly. Thus, their stabilization abilities on heavy metals have been studied by several researchers. Hou et al.  discussed the immobilizing effect of dithiocarbamates (DTCs) on mercury(II) as well as the effect of four heavy metals ions (Cu2+, Pb2+, Ni2+ and Zn2+) on DTCR Hg2+ Romidepsin efficiency and Hg2+ reduction. The results demonstrated that DTCR can precipitate Hg2+ well, and the heavy metal ions inhibited Hg2+ precipitation. Jiang et al.  synthesized one heavy metal chelating agent by the reaction of polyamine (or polyethylene imine) and CS2, and discussed its stabilization effect on such heavy metals as Pb, Cr, Zn, Cu, and so on. The results revealed that this agent can stabilize heavy metals more effectively than inorganic stabilization chemicals such as sodium sulfide and lime. Fu et al.  demonstrated the precipitation ability of one new dithiocarbamate–type compound (HTDC) on Cu2+. The results indicated that HTDC could bind with Cu2+ effectively in CuEDTA wastewater by the formation of insoluble coordination supermolecular polymer (Cu3(HTDC)2)n.
Comparison of USE and conventional extraction (CE) on the taurine yield.Extraction typeTemperature (°C)Time (min)Taurine yield (mg/g)aUSE (300.0 W)404013.2 ± 0.22CE (250 rpm)4036012.9 ± 0.11CE (250 rpm)7024013.0 ± 0.17aMean ± SD (n = 3).Full-size tableTable optionsView in workspaceDownload as CSV
Ultrasound has been widely utilized in large scale commercial applications as agenerase food processing technology  and . The use of ultrasound extraction methods on a commercial scale has led to improvements in product efficiency, process enhancement, and low maintenance costs  and . In Monera study, only 38.3 min in water (a green environmental solvent) is needed to recover taurine from P. yezoensis with a higher yield and a shorter extraction time compared to conventional extraction procedures. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted taurine extraction will help the development of the UAE process for use in industrial processes. However, further studies regarding large scale UAE experiments are required.
2.4. MFC setup and application
2.5. Measurement and analysis
3. Results and discussion
3.1. Characterisation of synthesized PEDOT
The FT-IR spectrum for the synthesized PEDOT was carried out to confirm the polymerisation of EDOT and uk101 illustrated in Fig. S2(a). Peaks at 1575 and 1463 cm−1 are attributed to CC and CC stretching vibrations of the heteroaromatic thiophene ring respectively (Li et al., 2011 and Wang et al., 2013). Peaks ranging from 1000 to 1300 cm−1 (1269, 1157, 1124 and 1070 cm−1) are indicative of COC bond in the dioxane group (Abdiryim et al., 2012 and Eren et al., 2012). The peaks around 995, 947 and 865 cm−1 signifies the presence of CS bonds present in the thiophene ring (Abdiryim et al., 2012).
The crystallographic analysis of the synthesized PEDOT is depicted in Fig. S2(b). The analysis reveals broad peaks that denotes the amorphous nature of synthesized PEDOT (Selvaganesh et al., 2007). The spectrum exhibits three distinct peaks at 2θ = 6.4°, 12.8° and 26°. The peak seen at 6.4° represents the reflection of the (1 0 0) polymer backbone with d-spacing of 13.9 Å ( Choi et al., 2004). As the d-spacing of 12.8° is 6.9 Å which is half of the (1 0 0) reflection, this peak corresponds to the (2 0 0) reflection of the polymer backbone. The peak ∼26° corresponds to (0 2 0) reflection.